About 2o years ago I was driving back from university with my grandfather and then he mentioned how they found planets around other stars. He found this by watching a program on PBS. The fist few were gas giants close to their star called Hot Jupiters. Between now and then there have been many more planets found from smaller then the Earth to larger than Jupiter. Today around a small star that is cooler than the Sun, Nasa released that 7 planets have been around a star called TRAPPIST-1. Three of these planets are in a zone where liquid water can exists, these zones around stars are called habitable zones or Goldilocks zones. These planets are so close that you could look up and see details of the other planets
February 22, 2017
February 13, 2017
February 1, 2017
According to many years of observation and theory, stars are objects of mostly plasma. To get the energy to get the gas and dust that forms the stars and planets, first the gas has to collapse from a giant cloud or nebula. When the core of the star reaches the right pressure and temperature it starts nuclear fusion. Most stars start by fusing hydrogen, the first step a proton and a proton collide and forms a proton and neutron, a positron (the antimatter version of an electron with a positive charge0 and a neutrino (a small nearly mass particle). The next step the neutron and proton combined pair which is the nucleus of an isotope of hydrogen called a deuterium and a proton collide to form the nucleus of helium with two protons and on neutron also a neutrino and energy. The last step is when two helium nucleus collide and form a helium nucleus with 2 protons and 2 neutrons, 2 free protons. This how most stars start producing energy, as a star uses it up hydrogen it turns to helium and so and so on if it can produce the heat pressure in the core of the star.
As the stars are forming in the nebula, smaller chunks separate, this objects which are about 13 to 85 times the mass of Jupiter with Jupiter only having about of 1/1000 the mass of the Sun. These stars do not have enough mass to get close to the temperature at the core of the Sun so if they create their own energy they use another reaction chain. One reaction starts with a lithium nucleus that collides with a proton and creates beryllium. Next the beryllium collides with an electron to create a lithium atom with an extra neutron plus a neutrino. The next step is a proton hits this neutron heavy lithium and forms an unstable form of beryllium that then decays into 2 helium atoms. This objects are called brown dwarfs and could have planets close enough to be warm enough to have liquid water on them.
In the electric universe model stars are were currents of flowing thru space and there are ares were these current is pinched together and then it glows. The nuclear reactions are suppose to take place on the surface of the star and the products drift into the core of stars were the planets are formed and when they are ready they are ejected into space.