I am sorry for not posting here and I probably won’t be posting for a while. I got a little distracted and been looking for a job with not much success. Also my computer died. In addition I have a couple of large projects that envolve moving several tons of material so I do not know when I will posting next.
April 12, 2011
December 15, 2010
Due to snow already on the ground and high rain fall on Monday our little town got flooded and here are a few pictures that got emailed to me about it.
October 21, 2010
Recently I have been watch Top Gear and this is my favorite bit ever.
August 21, 2010
When I was a kid I remember late at night before the local PBS station went off the air there was a quick little astronomy show called Star Hustler. It was a quick look at what was up during the up coming week in the sky. Now he is gone but as he also ended the program. “Keep looking up”.
August 11, 2010
I don’t normally watch America’s Got Talent but this year they have a real interesting group which I like.
December 2, 2009
What the bleeping bleep. I do not have a Wii but would like one until I saw the commercial for everyones favourite antivaxxer promoting her game for the console. This is diffently a minus for the Wii. Why did nintendo decide to give that no brain idiot to be the front person for this new game.
November 6, 2009
No I have not found a new job yet but I have busy. Right now spending time in the woods behind my home gathering tips. Tips are basically the tips of fir branches used in wreath making. This way a get some exercise maybe earn a little money and scout out our land that nobody has been on for about a decade. Besides that trying to learn web programming, split and piled five cords of wood and looking for a job.
August 8, 2009
Hubble’s law states that galaxies are moving away from each other and the further apart
they are the faster they moving away. The acceleration that has been determined be 74.2
km/s/Mpc. That means for every Mega parsec(1million*3.26 light-years) between galaxies they
are moving apart at 74.2 km/s.
How was Hubble’s law found and used?
About ninety years ago there was an astronomer named Edwin Hubble. He took many images of
what were known as nebula. Some of these nebulas contained stars and some had Cepheid
variables. Cepheid variables are stars the change their brightness of a period of time. The
relationship between brightness and period is well known so if take images over an extended
amount of time you can figure out the period, after that you can figure out the maximum
brightness and figure out how far the galaxy is away. Hubble came to the conclusion that some of
the nebula were further away then what could be in our galaxy. At the same time there was a
group measuring the red shift of these nebula, Hubble compared the distances with red shifts and
found that further away the galaxies the faster they were travelling away from us. Since Hubble’s
time there have been at least one other way of finding distances that is type 1a supernovae. Type
1a supernova are large explosions created when enough mass is deposited onto a white dwarf.
After a while the white dwarf becomes unstable and there is a large explosion. The amount of
light decreases at predictable rate so they can be used similar to Cepheids.
The electric universe theorists claim there is no evidence support that the further a galaxy it is
however there is plenty of evidence to support it.
Kauffman(1995),Universe,4th edition, pages 396-385, 483-485
Carrol and Ostlie, An Introduction to Modern Astrophysics pages 1112
August 5, 2009
During the first day of my first astronomy class the professor asked the class a question,
“when you look up at night what do you see?” Some said “stars, planets, moons”, and some idiot
that will not be named (me),”quasars”. “No, we see light” he responded. All the information we
get from a star is in its light. From the light of the star we get it’s temperature, what is made of,
the concentration of what is made of, and the mass.
What is light?
Light acts like a particle with no mass and also a wave. There is one experiment that can
demonstrate this and that is the Young double slit experiment. To set up this experiment you a card with
two slits in it, a light source shining through it and a screen opposite the light source. When
you run the experiment emitting one particle at a time over many times the pattern the many dots
make is the same interference as if a wave was going through the slits. At
Hitachi. These experiments both showed the wave-particle duality of the electrons. Light is also
the particle that conveys electromagnetic energy.
How is light generated?
Light can be generated by several different processes. One is nuclear reactions such as fission and
fusion, in either one of process happens a small portion of the mass converted to energy we
detect this energy in the form of light. Another way is when an electron which is orbiting around
the nucleus and then is excited by a photon (particle of light) and goes to higher orbit or leaves
the atom but the atom actually wants to be in lowest energy state so the electron will go back to
the lower energy level and admit a photon. When atoms are excited by thermal means, that
means the atoms move faster and faster, the atoms collide and electrons can be excited and as
before they want to be in the lowest energy level and the energy lost is seen as light.
What is the spectrum and how is created?
Take a prism and hold it to the sun get a rainbow coming out. The reason for this is that the
light from the sun is composed of all these colours and as they go through the prism they travel at
different speeds. We can only see a small part of the spectrum, there are X-rays, gamma rays and
UV light which have shorter wavelengths and are higher energy then we see, at the other end we
have infrared , microwaves and radio waves which are longer wavelength and lower energy.
There three different types of spectrum each dependent on what you are viewing. A
continuous spectrum has no lines and caused by a hot opaque, dense gas. An emission spectrum
is series of bright lines against a dark back ground and caused by a hot transparent gas. An
absorption spectrum is a series of dark lines against a background pf a continuous spectrum is
caused by the light from a source of a continuous passing through a cool transparent gas.
spectrum also come in a form of the intensity vs the wavelength.
How Do Astronomer’s use the Spectrum ?
There is gold in there light. First can determine what temperature an object is, this is
done by plotting the intensity (how strong) vs the wavelength. The plot you get for example for
the sun will have peak at 550 nm, this with a little math gives a temp of 5780 K. If you have an
emission or adsorption nebula you can determine what the object is composed. The orbits of
electrons around each type of element is slightly different so the energy needed to excite each
electron in different types of atoms or molecules is different. So if you know what the spectrum
for the various atoms or molecules you can figure out what the object is made of, some stars
show a spectrum of molecules and molecules break apart a fairly cool temperatures so these stars
must be cool, some stars show no molecules but show ionized atoms these stars are hotter
because the molecules have been broken apart.
Mass can be determined by the interaction of the object with other objects. When an
object moves away from the observer the light is shifted to the red end of the spectrum and when
the object moves closer the light is shifted towards the blue end. If there is a star where the
spectrum is shifted from the red and then to blue and does this one a regular period you can
determine the mass of the objects. This is also how most planets are found around other stars.
One claim by the electric universe proponents is that there is no connection to the mass and the colour of a star. Also all the light is generated on the surface of the star.
First most stars have an absorption spectrum and if the light was produced on the surface they would have an emission spectrum. There are some stars that have an emission spectrum but these are extremely hot stars and therefore the atmospheres are hot enough to ionizethe atoms. Second most stars in our galaxy are two or more stars that orbit around each other so there are plenty of stars of different types to see if there is correlation between mass and colour. Also smaller stars tend be cooler and more massive stars are hotter, so the less massive stars should have molecules
in there spectrum and larger stars shouldn’t have molecules in the spectrum. So scientists have found low mass stars that emit most of the light in the red part of the spectrum and have molecules in there spectrum while high mass stars emit most of there light in the blue part of the spectrum and have ionized atoms in the spectrum.
Light is a particle and a wave and conveys electromagnetic light. There is a lot of
information that can be found in the light that a star emits such as mass, temperature and
composition. We can show that there is correlation between mass, colour and temperature of a star.
Kauffman(1995),Universe,4th edition, pages 79,81,115
Bradley W. Carroll and Dale A. Ostlie(1996), An introduction to Modern Astrophysics,pages63-82,223-250
July 25, 2009
Why discuss Aether?
Because the electric universe proponents try to dismiss special relativity by trying to
claim aether does exist therefore Einstein was wrong. Long before Einstein’s theory of special
relativity there was gathering evidence that aether was not there. As Sagan states in the Demon
Haunted World, it is not possible to prove something does not exists, in aethers case there is no
proof that demonstrates it does exists.
What is Aether?
This is not so simple because it meant different things to different groups. Aether meant to
the Greeks as “to burn, to kindle, or to shine” and it meant everything above the clouds. Newton
used it to help explain the refraction and diffraction in the particle theory of light Huygens used to
explain how light moved in a wave. Huygen’s claimed that light moved in longitudinal waves like
sound waves or mechanical waves. Eventually it turned into a substance that could do almost
everything at the same time. When Maxwell came along with his equations for electricity and
magnetism it came obvious that light travelled in transverse waves which means that the aether has
to be rigid. The only requirement for Maxwells equations for light to travel in a vacuum is must
travel at the speed of light. At lower energies the viscosity had to near null or it would cause drag,
and the planets would spiral towards the Sun. In the 1800′s experiments like Michelson-Morley
experiment showed no evidence of aether exists. Since then there have been several more accurate
experiments backing up these experiments.
What was the Michelson-Morley experiment ?
The Michelson-Morley experiment was to measure the effect of the aether on a light source
travelling on the Earth. If the Earth moves in the aether and the light is parallel to the motion of the
Earth around the Sun, it would effect the speed of light. The speed of light would be higher when
travelling in same direction as the movement of Earth around the Sun and would be less when the
light was travelling the opposite direction. The device was a light source that was passed through a
halved silvered at a 45 degree angle mirror thus splitting the light on straight ahead and one at 90
degrees. The whole apparatus was floated in pool of mercury so it could spin so it could change
orientations easily. At the end of each arm was a mirror and was reflected back to halved silvered
mirror and reflected to a detector. If the two beams of light were still travelling at the same speed
they would over lap each and constructively interfere each other. If one was slower then the other
there would be two peaks with one slightly behind the other. On the detector there would a pattern
of a bright dot in the centre and a series of concentric circles on the detector if there is aether and if
no aether there would be no pattern. There was a pattern but it was smaller then what was needed
and what was detected was less then experimental error and the era of aether was on it’s way out.
Were there any experiments that did not agree
There were a set of experiments done by Dayton Miller which showed aether may exists. Dayton Miller’s experiments were shown by Shankland to have errors. The apparatus itself was shown to be affected by thermal conditions also Miller’s results were actually averages of hundreds so they were 10 times smaller then could be measured by the device . So device could be influenced by temperature changes and the analysis was faulty.
So in summary, aether could exits but it has no effect on light or on matter that we can
measure with our current technology. Does this prove Einstein right, no. Is there other evidence for
special relativity, yes.
Gaincoli Douglas C. (1995), Physics, 4th ed. Pg 746-749